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AHA- American Heart Association

Abduction- movement of an extremity away from the midline of the body.

Acetate- an organic substance produced by the liver to be used for energy using cannibalized fat and muscle tissue; occurs during both starvation and over-exertion; extreme levels are toxic to the brain

Actin- the smaller of the two contractile elements which sustain damage through applied resistance and are once again repaired through anabolism resulting in hypertrophy of the myofibril

Acute- rapid onset and severe symptoms of occurrence; usually referring to injury

Adipose- of a fatty nature; fat

Aldosterone- hormone regulating salt and water balance

Androgenic- contributing to the formation of male and/or female characteristics

Anemia- condition in which oxygen transport by the red blood cells is deficient

Anabolism- the stage of metabolism when damaged tissue is being repaired

Angina Pectoris- periodic severe pain in the chest radiating to the left shoulder and down the inner side of the left arm, usually precipitated by physical exertion or emotional stress

Anorexia- lack or loss of appetite for food

Antagonistic Muscle- a muscle whose action opposes that of another muscle

Amylase- carbohydrate digestive enzymes.

Arteriole- a very small artery

Artery- a vessel through which the blood  passes away from the heart to the various parts of the body

ADP- adenosine diphosphate; resultant molecule of splitting ATP for energy also used to regenerate ATP

ATP- adenosine triphosphate; chemical source of energy for all nucleated cells

Atrophy- a wasting away or diminution in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or part

Beta Oxidation- energy producing process involving the breakdown of long chains of fatty acids into two carbon

molecules which enter metabolic pathways to produce ATP

Bile- emulsifier of fat; breaks fat down into easily metabolized droplets

Bloodsugar- circulating glucose within the cardiovascular system

Cannibalism- the breakdown and use of body tissue for energy in the absence of nutrients

Cartilage- hard tissue located chiefly in the joints of major bones

Catabolism- the stage of metabolism when activity is being performed causing damage to cells later needing repair

Catalyst- a substance which changes the velocity of a reaction but does not form part of the final product

Cerebrospinal Fluid- fluid which surrounds and circulates throughout the central nervous system

Chronic- gradual in onset and very slow in recovery, usually refers to injury which is long in duration

Chylomicrons- packaged form of fatty substances entering into the blood from digestion via the lymphatic system

Collateral- referring to fluid (blood) movement outside the main cardiovascular tree

Contraindication- outward signal of internal dysfunction, or adverse bodily activity

Cortisol- principle stress hormone released by the adrenal gland during times of physical and physiological stress, mobilizes fat and stimulates the liver to release tissue cannibalizing enzymes into the bloodstream

Creatine Phosphate- acts as store of high energy phosphate in muscle tissue

Deamination- the undesirable breakdown and use of amino acids for energy, performed by the liver, results in the toxic

ammonia; later broken down into urea for excretion

Dilation- the peripheral expansion of tissue; usually blood vessels

Ectomorphic- having a relative tendency to remain very thin

Edema- the presence of an abnormally large volume of fluid in the interstitial spaces of the body

Endomorphic- having a relative tendency to remain heavy or obese

Endomysium- a fine connective tissue sheath surrounding the individual muscle cell fiber

Enzyme- proteins in small amounts that speed up chemical reactions

Epimysium- a fine connective tissue sheath that surrounds the entire muscle group, also known as deep fascia

Equilibrium- the stage in metabolism when neither damage or repair is occurring; the cell is at rest

Ergometer- device normally used for submaximal aerobic evaluation (exercise bike)

Exogenous- imposing an affect on the body from the outside environment

Extracellular- all areas outside the tissue cell wall; usually referring to intramuscular areas.

Fatty acids- the body’s desired source of energy during steady state aerobic activity, and low level activity; used for ATP

production in muscle tissue during recovery glycogen replenishment

Glucagon- hormone released in response to low bloodsugar level; stimulates the liver to release stored glycogen in the

form of glucose into the bloodstream, returning bloodsugar levels to normal

Glucometer- self-testing device used to measure blood glucose

Gluconeogenesis- the formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources such as protein or fatty acids

Glucose- the principle bloodsugar

Glucose polymers- chain of glucose molecules linked together

Gluco-Stix- blood blotting stick used in conjunction with glucometer testing

Glycemic Index- a functional list of foods rated according to their specific absorption rate into the bloodstream

Glycerol- component of triglycerides capable of conversion to glucose

Glycogen- the chief carbohydrate storage form of glucose

Glycolysis- energy production using glucose

Hydrolysis- decomposition with the addition of water

Hyperplasia- an increase in the size of a muscle or organ owing to an increase in the number of cells

Hypertension- abnormally high tension; usually high blood pressure

Hypertonic- having an osmotic pressure greater than that of another solution with which it is compared

Hypertrophy- the enlargement or overgrowth of a part due to an increase in the size of its cells

Hypoglycemia- concentration of glucose in the blood below the normal limit

Hypotonic- having an osmotic pressure lower than that of a solution with whichit is compared

Impermeable- not permitting for passage; usually fluid

Innervation- a nerve supply that stimulates a motor unit to contract regardless of the angle of resistance, so long as the

action potential exceeds the motor unit’s contractile threshold

Insertion- place of attachment of a muscle to the bone which it moves; occurs at the end of the muscle furthest from the body

Insulin- hormone released during high bloodsugar levels, or at the onset of exercise, responsible for reducing bloodsugar

to its normal level through its mediating affect on the uptake of sugar into various body tissues to include muscle and fat

Insulin Receptor Sites- pathways located on various body tissues, which in the presence of insulin, allow for the transport

of nutrients into the cell

Intracellular- situated inside the cell

Intramuscular- areas which are situated

anywhere inside a muscle group

Interstitial- pertaining to, or situated in the gaps between tissues

Keto-Stix- self-test sticks used to examine urine levels of acetate, ketones

Ketones- bi-product of tissue use for energy; large amounts are toxic to brain function

Lactic Acid- accumulates in muscle fibers during strenuous exercise causing cramps and inhibiting contraction

Ligament- any tough, fibrous tissue connecting bone to bone

Lipolytic enzymes- fat digestive enzymes

Lymphatic Vessels- network of vessels that transport fluids from the interstitial areas back into the bloodstream

Lypase- one of the two principle fat burning enzymes

Mesomorphic- a relative tendency to remain muscular in appearance

Metabolism- the sum of all the chemical and physical changes that can take place in the body and enable continued growth and functioning

Mitochondria- cell organelles that most of the cell’s ATP; known as the powerhouse of the cell

Motor Unit- a group of fibers stimulated to contract simultaneously in response to an action potential of sufficient intensity

to surpass its threshold of sensitivity

Myofibril- contractile proteins inside the cell comprised of actin and myosin

Myosin- the larger of the two contractile elements making up the myofibrils

Neuron- a nerve cell transmitting an impulse allowing for the contraction of a motor unit

Nucleolus- surrounds nucleus and houses RNA

Nucleus- the controlling organelle embedded in cell membrane and houses DNA

Oxidative Phosphorylation- system of energy production involving the utilization of glucose or fat in the presence of


Peptides- short chains of amino acid molecules linked together

Perfusion- passage of blood through the vascular tissue into the interstitial space

Perimysium- connective tissue sheath surrounding each motor unit

Plateau- period of training or diet in which no progress is identified

Proteases- protein digesting enzymes

Pyruvate- converted form of intracellular glucose used for producing ATP energy with oxygen.

Ribosomes- elements located along myofibrils which act to manufacture and repair actin and myosin

Rough Sacroplasmic Reticulum- houses ribosomes and are located around myofibrils

Subcutaneous- beneath the skin

Synthesis- putting together parts to form a more complete whole

Tendon- fibrous cord of connective tissue in which the muscles end, and are where

muscles attach to bone or other structures

Tropic- triggering or influencing an action

Vein- vessel which moves blood to or toward the heart

Ventricle (left)- the chamber of the heart pumping blood to the aorta

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